A child with ADHD and a coexisting disruptive behavior disorder is likely to be similar to children with ADHD alone in terms of intelligence, medical history, and neurological development. Disruptive behavior disorders are among the easiest to identify of all coexisting conditions because they involve behaviors that are readily seen such as temper tantrums, physical aggression such as attacking other children, excessive argumentativeness, stealing, and other forms of defiance or resistance to authority. He is probably no more impulsive than children with ADHD alone, although if he has conduct disorder, his teachers or other adults may misinterpret his aggressive behavior as ADHD-type impulsiveness.
Children with cerebral palsy have an impairment in the area of the brain that controls movement and muscle tone. Many of these youngsters have normal intelligence, even though they have difficulty with motor control and movement. The condition causes different types of motor disability, which can vary from quite mild and barely noticeable to very profound. Depending on the severity of the problem, a child with cerebral palsy may simply be a little clumsy or awkward, or he may be unable to walk. Cerebral palsy is caused by malformation or damage to the brain, usually during pregnancy, but occasionally during delivery, or immediately after birth.
Communication disorders—conditions that interfere with communications with others in everyday life—involve not only the ability to appreciate language sounds (phonologic awareness) but also to acquire, recall, and use vocabulary (semantics) and to deal with word order and appropriately form or comprehend sentences (syntax).
The number of children with PDD and ADHD is difficult to determine because children with PDD alone often have elements of impulsiveness and hyperactivity. A child with PDD may also have mental retardation, but even if he does not, his PDD is likely to prevent him from participating fully socially and in many school and home activities.
Tics are rapid, repetitive movements or vocal utterances. They may be motor (like excessive eye blinking) or vocal (such as a habitual cough or chronic repetitive throat clearing noises), chronic (continuing throughout childhood), or transient (lasting less than 1–2 years). In children who eventually develop tic disorders and ADHD, the ADHD usually develops 2 to 3 years before the tics.
Jeena Teen is Published in the book “Best of Teen Writing 2009,” with forward by Elie Wiesel, Nobel Peace Laureate
A switch adapted battery operated toy is a toy that has been modified so that a child with a disability can press a switch and activate the toy. The necessary modifications are easy for most adults with just a few tools and supplies from your local electronics store or some hardware stores.To make your battery operated toy work with a single switch, you need to make a copper wafer that “interrupts” the flow of electricity from the battery to the motor, lights, or sound of the toy. You then plug your switch into the phone jack connected to the copper wafer. To activate the toy, you touch the switch and close the circuit of electricity, which causes to toy to turn on.
Most forms of mental retardation are recognized early in a child’s life, as children fail to achieve standard developmental milestones at appropriate ages or clearly display unusual behaviors. Mental retardation is diagnosed in the 2% to 3% of children who score the lowest on a standard IQ test and are delayed to the same extent in such life skills as self-care, selfdirection, and the use of academic skills. Eighty-five percent of children with mental retardation fall into the mild range, with IQ scores from 50 to 70. Experts use these lower IQ scores to label a child as mildly, moderately, severely, or profoundly retarded. The majority of children with below-average IQ scores are not considered to be mentally retarded, but below average, with test scores between 70 and 89.
Motor skills disorder, also known as developmental coordination disorder, is diagnosed when motor skills problems significantly interfere with academic achievement or activities of daily living. Motor skills disorder involves a developmental delay of movement and posture that leaves children with coordination substantially below that of others of their age and intelligence level.